Nearing the end of my wife’s visiting professorship in Japan, I’m delighted to share that our adventures in Asia will continue in Hong Kong. I will start work this summer as Associate Professor in the Department of Cultural and Creative Arts at The Education University of Hong Kong.
Here are a few photos that capture the beautiful campus, outstanding colleagues, and the overwhelming scope of Hong Kong. Outside the music building there is a statue of Confucius, a reminder the importance paid to education in China for over two thousand years, and who certainly supported music as central to life:
Confucius is often portrayed in good spirits—singing with friends, playing the lute, laughing and joking. He once told a disciple that he should be described as “so full of joy that he forgets his worries.” On another occasion, Confucius asked his disciples to tell him what their goals would be if they earned the eye of a ruler. One pledged to fix a broken state, another to bring prosperity to the people, and a third to serve in the ancestral temples. Then the disciple Zeng Dian spoke. “Dian, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside,” the Analects recounts. “‘ My wishes,’” he said, “‘ are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen. In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the Yi [River], enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing.’” Confucius then “heaved a sigh and said, ‘I give my approval to Dian.’”
Schuman, M. (2015). Confucius and the world he created. New York, NY: Basic Books. (p. 19)
A fan cosplaying a Vocaloid in Japan, 2016. Photo by the author.
The Journal of Aesthetic Education has published my overview of sound studies for those working in music education. I review the basic texts, some of the work of those in music education, and pose a few questions.
This article explores how sound studies, an interdisciplinary field that draws upon the social sciences and the humanities in researching a broad array of topics related to sound and music, holds promise for music education research. Defining the field using recent sources, it discusses the varied disciplines that contribute to sound studies. Key texts are reviewed, with a focus on methodological models and conclusions of importance to music educators. Three questions concerning the value and importance of establishing connections between sound studies and music education are addresses: First, in what ways can music educators benefit by engaging with sound studies? Second, in what ways can sound studies benefit by embracing music educators? Third, what might music educators contribute to sound studies? After detailing some of the emerging efforts to reconnect music education with sound studies, the article proposes ways that music education and sound studies together might enhance educational practice.
A free “preprint” version is available at the University of Florida institutional repository: http://ufdc.ufl.edu//IR00009273/00001
If you have access to JSTOR the article can be had here: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jaesteduc.51.1.0069?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Who doesn’t love karaoke? During my latest visit to a karaoke club in Tokyo the TV was off, the microphones were left in their holders, and the disco ball did not spin.
Instead, a group of friends who all play American 0ld-time music met up for a New Year’s jam. The karaoke club was a solution to a common Tokyo challenge: finding space where your noise won’t bother neighbors.
I had previously heard about karaoke rooms being used for business meetings (WSJ story here), but I hadn’t heard about karaoke rooms essentially serving as practice rooms or clubs. That said, while we were there, I also heard a jazz combo with trumpet in another room. And the daytime rates are quite reasonable (my share for a six-hour jam was equivalent to US$10).
The irony and delight in filling a karaoke room with old-time acoustic music was too much not to share here. After six hours of fiddle tunes it was dark out and I had just enough time to catch the bullet train home.
That said, we probably should have turned on the disco ball…
The drawings and paintings of students are a window into preschool life in Japan. These, from a local art show, are drawn from several schools. Marching band, trips to the ocean and the zoo, farming sweet potatoes or bamboo, collecting beetles, and viewing the local giant buddha statue are all part of life, beautifully depicted.
Singing and playing together is common in Japan, and the ukulele has become quite popular here. For the third year in a row, I took part in the Ukulele Welcome Party in Toyama, Japan. It takes time to learn the music any given community knows and loves, and this year we included some Japanese songs and lyrics along with well-loved American tunes. We also included the Okinawan sanshin, another instrument strongly associated with participatory music.
For those interested in the basic approach, here are a few photos and some video. The underlying participatory approach, making music with others instead of performing for others, is featured in several posts on this blog and also in an article in Music Educators Journal.
Yesterday, during a visit to an elementary school, a presenter from the city’s education bureau made a point about the complexity behind the simple act of making an origami frog. Showing the frog, he then opened up a piece of paper upon which were traced all the folds that are present in the completed frog.
The origami frog is beautiful. The patterns inside the frog are also beautiful. The care that went into depicting those patterns is beautiful. And the idea that parents and students are encouraged to make, celebrate, and understand art as a core component to human development is beautiful. Origami, painting, singing, calligraphy—along with caring for animals and paying attention to nature—are equally important with typical math/reading/history subjects here in Japan.
My experiences of Japanese education suggest that the development of the body and mind are not seen as separate. Instead, the physical and mental are unified through origami, kendo, and long recess periods on equipment that challenge students (including ubiquitous unicycles). Our family is glad to be learning here, glad to be singing songs, folding paper, climbing trees, digging up sweet potatoes, and growing tomatoes along with what we would be learning in school in America.
With permission, here’s a photo of the frog and the digram, a small part of the larger web of relations as people work together to pass on these traditions, fold by fold.
Sports day, or undōkai (運動会), is a very important for participation and group cohesion. In Japan they exist at every school, and each neighborhood also has one in which people of every age participate together. The event typically weaves together music, dance, and sports (the sports are often collaborative, such as a relay race). Preparation is a focus for several months, and the senior students (age 5) present a marching band show that is a highlight. Here are a few moments:
Further reading on Japanese bands and preschools:
Hebert, D. G. (2012). Wind bands and cultural identity in Japanese schools. Dordrecht; New York: Springer.
Rohlen, T. P., & LeTendre, G. K. (1996). Teaching and learning in Japan. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Walsh, D. J. (2004). Frog Boy and the American Monkey: the Body in Japanese Early Schooling. In L. Bresler (Ed.), Knowing Bodies, Moving Minds (pp. 97–109). Springer Netherlands.
Sound Recording at the Heart of Pedagogy: Suzuki’s Method in America
Thursday, March 17, 8:30 a.m. (Augusta Room 3)
This historical study examines the mediated pedagogic techniques of the Suzuki Method. I explore the role of mothers as pedagogic and technological innovators, the development of approaches to learning through listening, Suzuki’s notion of a recording as teacher, and the pedagogic extension of the method through the adoption of the compact cassette tape format. Finally, the resonance between the Method and Japanese educational ideas is contrasted with the American resistance to recordings.
For those curious to think about what it means to connect musical development and instrumental learning to sound recording technologies, those who are interested in sound studies and media, and fans of Suzuki’s “Twinkle Variations”—you are invited! There will be time for discussion and questions.
While in Atlanta I will also be presenting to the Philosophy SRIG Pre-conference, attending the Philosophy SRIG session, and attending sessions for BCRME, for SRIG Chairs, and a social event for the University of Florida. NAfME Atanta Suzuki 2016 look forward to seeing many friends and making new ones.
For those interested in the history of music education and psychology, here’s a real treasure from 70 years ago: the syllabus for ED 289I, “Psychological Foundations of Music Education” as taught by James Mursell at Teacher’s College, Columbia University. Here’s the syllabus for the class in its entirety.
For those unfamiliar with his work, Mursell has a Wikipedia page, and a special issue of Visions of Research in Music Education covers the legacy of Dewey and Mursell. Scott Goble’s What’s So Important About Music Education also has a section on Mursell.
I came across this syllabus while doing archival work at the University of Southern Illinois Edwardsville campus, and have been able to narrow it to between 1943–6. Here are a few choice questions from the “study guide”:
American old-time jam in Kyoto, Japan
“Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles,” [Open access version at UF Repository here] appears in the December 2015 issue of Music Educators Journal. The article presents ideas from my immersion in participatory music—in particular from a chance to learn alongside Tom Turino as I helped him teach a class for music education graduate students for two summers (he was also my clawhammer banjo teacher). The article helps to pass on some of what I learned through reading, teaching, and doing participatory music out in the world.
Making participatory music, adopting participatory values, and bonding with others through music changes one, and I hope that many educators find time to explore the values, pedagogy, and repertoire of participatory music with their students.
Here are some resources to explore:
Dana Montiero’s Harlem Samba: http://www.harlemsamba.com/#about